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Led structure, luminescence principle, characteristics and application of light


50 years ago, people have to understand the semiconductor material can produce light of the basic knowLedge, the first commercially available diodes in 1960. Led is the English light emitting diode (Led) acronym, and its basic structure is an electroluminescent semiconductor material, placed in a wire rack, then seaLed with epoxy resin around, protect the internal core wire effect, so the seismic performance Led.

The core part of the light-emitting diode is a p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor chip formed in the p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor between a transition layer, calLed the pn junction. In certain semiconductor materials, PN junction, the injection of minority carrier and majority carrier recombination, when will the excess energy released in the form of light to convert light energy directly into electrical energy. PN junction reverse voltage, minority-carrier injection is difficult, it is not light. The use of injection electroluminescent diodes calLed the principle of making light emitting diodes, commonly known as Led. When it is in working condition when a positive (that ends with a positive voltage), current from the Led anode to the cathode, the semiconductor crystals to the making of different colors from the ultraviolet to infrared light, light intensity and current.

Features Led light source

1. Voltage: Led using low voltage power supply, power supply voltage between 6-24V, according to the products vary, so it is more secure than the use of high voltage power supply, especially for public places.
2. Performance: consumption of energy-efficient than incandescent light with 80% reduction
3. Applicability: small, small piece of each unit is Led square 3-5mm, so the shape can be prepared into a variety of devices, and for the environment variable
4. Stability: 10 million hours, the light fades to 50% of the initial
5. Response time: the incandescent millisecond response time, Led lights nanosecond response time
6. Of environmental pollution: no harmful metal mercury
7. Color: you can change the current color, light-emitting diodes by chemical modification methods to easily adjust the material's band structure and band gap, to achieve multi-color light orange red Huanglv Lan. Such as the small current when the red Led, as the current increases, you can turn to orange, yellow, and finally to the green
8. Price: Led's are expensive, compared to incandescent lamps, a few Led's price to the price of incandescent lamps with a considerable, and often each signal to be 300 to 500 by the diode on the form.

Third, the types of monochromatic Led and development history

The first application of the principle of semiconductor PN junction light-emitting Led light source made of 60 came in the early 20th century. Use at the time of the material is GaAsP, fat red (竹p = 650nm), the drive current of 20 mA, the luminous flux is only a few lumens per thousand, and the corresponding luminous efficiency of about 0.1 lumens / watt.

The mid-70s, the introduction of elements of In and N, the Led produces green (竹p = 555nm), yellow (竹p = 590nm) and orange (竹p = 610nm), luminous efficiency is also increased to 1 lumen / watt.

To the early 80s, there's GaAlAs Led, red Led light effects make up to 10 lumens / watt.

Early 90s, red light, yellow light GaAlInP and hair green and blue GaInN successful development of two new materials to make Led light effect has been greatly improved. In 2000, the former is made of Led in red, orange area (竹p = 615nm) of the luminous efficiency of 100 lm / W, which made the green zone Led (竹p = 530nm) of the luminous efficiency can reach 50 lm / watts.

Fourth, the application of monochromatic Led

Instrumentation for the first Led light source direction, then a variety of light-colored Led in traffic lights and large screen has been widely used and produced good economic and social benefits. 12-inch red traffic lights, for example, is used in the United States would have long life, low-efficiency 140-watt incandescent lamp as a light source, it produces 2000 lumens of white light. The red filter, 90% light loss, only 200 lumens of red light. In light of the new design, LumiLeds has used a red Led light source 18, including circuit losses, including a total power of 14 watts of light to produce the same effect.

Automotive Led lights are also important areas of light application. In 1987, China began to install in the car brake light, the Led response speed (ns), at an early stage so that the trailing vehicle drivers know that driving conditions and reduce the incidence of rear-end accidents.

In addition, Led lights in the outdoor red, green, blue full-color display, mini flashlight key chain-type fields have been applied.

Fifth, the development of white Led

For general lighting purposes, people need a white light. 1998 glowing Led developed. This is the GaN Led chip and yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) packaged together to make. GaN blue chip fat (竹p = 465nm, Wd = 30nm), made of high-temperature sintering of YAG phosphors with Ce3 + excited by this yellow and blue light emission, peak 550nm. Blue Led substrate cavity instalLed in the reflective bowl, cover with thin layer of resin mixed with YAG, about 200-500nm. Led blue part of the substrate to be issued by the phosphor absorbed, and some blue and yellow light emitted phosphor mixture can be too white. Now, for the InGaN / YAG white Led, YAG phosphor by changing the chemical composition and adjust the thickness of the phosphor layer can be obtained color temperature 3500-10000K in colored white.

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